HEALTHSHELTER AND SETTLEMENTFOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITIONWATER SUPPLY, SANITATION AND HYGIENE PROMOTIONCORE HUMANITARIAN STANDARDPROTECTION PRINCIPLESTHE HUMANITARIAN CHARTERWHAT IS SPHERE

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action (the Alliance) is a global network of operational agencies, academic institutions, policymakers, donors and practitioners. Its mission is to support the efforts of humanitarian actors to achieve high-quality and effective child protection interventions in both refugee and non-refugee humanitarian settings. The Alliance achieves this primarily by facilitating inter-agency collaboration on child protection and by producing technical standards and tools.

The Alliance envisions a world in which children are protected from abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence in all humanitarian settings.

https://alliancecpha.org

Contents

Contents

Foreword

Acknowledgements

Icons used in the CPMS

CPMS-specific icons

INSPIRE icons

Icons related to the integration of child protection across sectors

Acronyms and abbreviations

Introduction

What is Child Protection in Humanitarian Action?

Why the Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action (CPMS)?

What does each standard contain?

Who should use these standards?

How were the standards developed, and on what are they based?

The international legal basis for child protection in humanitarian action

How do these standards connect with other humanitarian standards?

How do I use the CPMS in my context?

The 2019 Edition of the CPMS

What do we mean when we say ‘children’?

What cross-cutting issues should be considered when using the standards?

Principles

Principle 1: Survival and development

Principle 2: Non-discrimination and inclusion

Principle 3: Children’s participation

Principle 4: The best interests of the child

Principle 5: Enhance people’s safety, dignity and rights and avoid exposing them to further harm

Principle 6: Ensure people’s access to impartial assistance according to need and without discrimination

Principle 7: Assist people to recover from the physical and psychological effects of threatened or actual violence, coercion or deliberate deprivation

Principle 8: Help people to claim their rights (Sphere)

Principle 9: Strengthen child protection systems

Principle 10: Strengthen children’s resilience in humanitarian action

References

Introduction to Pillar 1: Standards to ensure a quality child protection response

Standard 1: Coordination

1.1.Key actions

1.2.Measurement

1.3.Guidance notes

1.4.References

Standard 2: Human resources

2.1.Key actions

2.2.Measurement

2.3.Guidance notes

2.4.References

Standard 3: Communications and advocacy

3.1.Key actions

3.2.Measurement

3.3.Guidance notes

3.4.References

Standard 4: Programme cycle management

4.1.Key actions

4.2.Measurement

4.3.Guidance notes

4.4.References

Standard 5: Information management

5.1.Key actions

5.2.Measurement

5.3.Guidance notes

5.4.References

Standard 6: Child protection monitoring

6.1.Key actions

6.2.Measurement

6.3.Guidance notes

6.4.References

Introduction to Pillar 2: Standards on child protection risks

Standard 7: Dangers and injuries

7.1.Key actions

7.2.Measurement

7.3.Guidance notes

7.4.References

Standard 8: Physical and emotional maltreatment

8.1.Key actions

8.2.Measurement

8.3.Guidance notes

8.4.References

Standard 9: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV)

9.1.Key actions

9.2.Measurement

9.3.Guidance notes

9.4.References

Standard 10: Mental health and psychosocial distress

10.1.Key actions

10.2.Measurement

10.3.Guidance notes

10.4.References

Standard 11: Children associated with armed forces or armed groups

11.1.Key actions

11.2.Measurement

11.3.Guidance notes

11.4.References

Standard 12: Child labour

12.1.Key actions

12.2.Measurement

12.3.Guidance notes

12.4.References

Standard 13: Unaccompanied and separated children

13.1.Key actions

13.2.Measurement

13.3.Guidance notes

13.4.References

Introduction to Pillar 3: Standards to develop adequate strategies

Standard 14: Applying a socio-ecological approach to child protection programming

14.1.Key actions

14.2.Measurement

14.3.Guidance notes

14.4.References

Standard 15: Group activities for child well-being

15.1.Key actions

15.2.Measurement

15.3.Guidance notes

15.4.References

Standard 16: Strengthening family and caregiving environments

16.1.Key actions

16.2.Measurement

16.3.Guidance notes

16.4.References

Standard 17: Community-level approaches

17.1.Key actions

17.2.Measurement

17.3.Guidance notes

17.4.References

Standard 18: Case management

18.1.Key actions

18.2.Measurement

18.3.Guidance notes

18.4.References

Standard 19: Alternative care

19.1.Key actions

19.2.Measurement

19.3.Guidance notes

19.4.References

Standard 20: Justice for children

20.1.Key actions

20.2.Measurement

20.3.Guidance notes

20.4.References

Introduction to Pillar 4: Standards to work across sectors

The importance of sectors working together to promote child protection and well-being

Who should do what?

Specific considerations for sector-integrated programming

References

Standard 21: Food security and child protection

21.1.Key actions

21.2.Measurement

21.3.Guidance notes

21.4.References

Standard 22: Livelihoods and child protection

22.1.Key actions

22.2.Measurement

22.3.Guidance notes

22.4.References

Standard 23: Education and child protection

23.1.Key actions

23.2.Measurement

23.3.Guidance notes

23.4.References

Standard 24: Health and child protection

24.1.Key actions

24.2.Measurement

24.3.Guidance notes

24.4.References

Standard 25: Nutrition and child protection

25.1.Key actions

25.2.Measurement

25.3.Guidance notes

25.4.References

Standard 26: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and child protection

26.1.Key actions

26.2.Measurement

26.3.Guidance notes

26.4.References

Standard 27: Shelter and settlement and child protection

27.1.Key actions

27.2.Measurement

27.3.Guidance notes

27.4.References

Standard 28: Camp management and child protection

28.1.Key actions

28.2.Measurement

28.3.Guidance notes

28.4.References

Annex 1: Glossary

Annex 2: Relevant legal instruments

General human rights instruments and related soft law

Child-specific human rights instruments and related soft law

International humanitarian law and related soft law

International refugee law and related soft law

Annex 3: Key resources for cross-cutting issues

Adolescents

Early childhood

Children with disabilities

Gender

Child participation

Environmental considerations

Refugees, internally displaced and migrant population settings

Infectious disease outbreak settings

Urban settings

Mobile programming

Cash and voucher assistance

Systems strengthening

Child trafficking

Foreword

Today, one in four children lives in a country affected by conflict or disaster. Girls and boys face daily risks to their lives and threats to their future physical and mental health. Evidence shows that illness, developmental challenges and even early death are connected to childhood hardship and exposure to violence. Children’s survival, well-being and healthy development are seriously jeopardised in humanitarian settings.

Given these immediate and long-term risks, it is an urgent priority for all those working in humanitarian settings to protect children from violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect. While child protection actors play a central role, all sectors need to be involved in preventing and responding holistically to the risks and vulnerabilities that affect girls and boys in crises. Humanitarian efforts must be predictable, swift, well-planned and responsive to children's and families' own priorities. Actions need to be grounded in rights, informed by evidence and measurable in their results. It is also essential to strengthen the formal and informal systems that will continue to protect children after the emergency response is over.

Taken together, all these requirements comprise the inter-agency Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action. Since their launch in 2012, the standards have contributed significantly to the professionalisation of the sector. Widely known and used by child protection and other experts in humanitarian settings, they have markedly improved the quality of our work. As part of the Humanitarian Standards Partnership, they have strengthened our accountability to those we serve.

This second edition of Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action has been realised through the hard work of over 1,900 individuals from 85 agencies and 82 countries. It is a true example of inter-agency and inter-sectoral collaboration. This edition strengthens the standards' emphasis on principles, evidence and prevention and increases their applicability to internal displacement and refugee contexts. We believe these changes will further professionalise the sector and add to the rigour and quality of programmes at the field level. We urge all those involved in humanitarian action to take this opportunity to implement and promote these standards.

Henrietta H. Fore
UNICEF Executive Director
Christine Knudsen
Executive Director, Sphere
Filippo Grandi
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Acknowledgements

The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action wishes to thank everybody who has collaborated on the 2019 Edition of the CPMS.

Full acknowledgments and other added resources can be found in the online version of the CPMS at https://alliancecpha.org/en/CPMS_home.

Special thanks are due to the following agencies and individuals who gave their time and expertise.

CPMS Working Group member agencies

BIFERD
Child Protection Area of Responsibility
Child Protection in Crisis Learning Network
ChildFund
Danish Refugee Council
Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children
International Committee of the Red Cross
International Federation of the Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies
International Labour Organization
International Organization for Migration
International Rescue Committee

Islamic Relief Worldwide
Nirengi Association
Office of the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict
Plan International
Save the Children
Terre des hommes
UNHCR
UNICEF
Viva
War Child Holland
World Health Organization
World Vision International

Many thanks to the following agencies who organised consultation workshops:

Afghanistan: Save the Children Afghanistan; Armenia: Children’s Support Center, Fund for Armenian Relief; Bangladesh/Cox’s Bazar: Child Protection Sub-Sector; Canada: International Child Protection Network of Canada; Colombia: Corporación Infancia y Desarrollo; Democratic Republic of Congo: BIFERD/DRC; Iraq: Child Protection Working Group (supported by UNICEF, UNHCR, Mission East and Save the Children’s Fund Kurdistan); Kenya: Child Protection Working Group (supported by UNICEF and Save the Children); LAC Region: UNICEF LACRO; Myanmar: Child Protection Sub-Cluster; Nigeria: Center for Community Health and Development International (CHAD) and Terre des hommes; Papua New Guinea: World Vision; Somalia: Child Protection Working Group (supported by CISP, UNICEF and the Government of Somalia); South Sudan: Child Protection Working Group (supported by UNICEF and Save the Children); Sudan: Global Aid Hand and UNICEF; Syria: Hurras Network/ Syria; Turkey: Nirengi Association; Syria: Children of One World Association (BİR DÜNYA ÇOCUK); and Uganda: Child Protection Sub-Cluster.

Save the Children and Terre des hommes each contributed a senior staff member to coordinate and manage the drafting process. Special thanks are due to these organisations, to Minja Peuschel and Susan Wisniewski, and to Susanna Davies and Joanna Wedge (from July/August 2019).

Finally, our deepest gratitude goes to the children all around the world, including our own, who inspire, instruct and encourage us in our humanitarian work.

Editors: Proteknôn Consulting Group, LLC., led by Hannah Thompson and Kristen Castrataro.

Graphic design by: Tiery Fresneau.

Layout by: River Valley Technologies.

Online consultation management: Markus Forsberg and Kim Morral of PHAP.

Donors: This edition was made possible with the financial support of USAID/ Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), the Bureau for Population, Refugees and Migration (BPRM) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).

Suggested citation: The Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, Minimum Standards for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action, 2019 Edition, 2019.

For feedback or suggestions for the improvement of this publication, please contact the Alliance for Child Protection in Humanitarian Action CPMS Working Group at cpms.wg@alliancecpha.org.

Icons used in the CPMS

CPMS-specific icons

Adolescence: all children aged 9–17 years

Case management

Displacement: individuals who are forced to flee their usual place of residence, including asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced people

Early childhood: all children aged 0–8 years

Indicators

Infectious disease outbreaks

Prevention of child protection risks

Safeguarding

INSPIRE icons

Implementation and enforcement of laws

Norms and values

Safe environments

Parent and caregiver support

Income and economic strengthening

Response and support services

Education and life skills

Icons related to the integration of child protection across sectors

Integration across all sectors

Integration with food security

Integration with livelihoods

Integration with education

Integration with health

Integration with nutrition

Integration with water, sanitation and hygiene

Integration with shelter and settlement

Integration with camp management

Acronyms and abbreviations

  • 3/4/5Ws

    Who does what, where, when and for whom

  • AAP

    Accountability to affected population

  • ACE

    Alternative care in emergencies

  • BID

    Best interests determination

  • CAAFAG

    Children associated with armed forces or armed groups

  • CBCP

    Community-based child protection

  • CCW

    Certain conventional weapons

  • CDC

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • CEFM

    Child, early and forced marriage

  • CFS

    Child-friendly spaces

  • CHH

    Child-headed household

  • CHS

    Core Humanitarian Standard on Quality and Accountability

  • CM

    Case management

  • CMTF

    Case Management Task Force

  • CTFMR

    Country Task Force for Monitoring and Reporting (on grave violations against children)

  • CP

    Child protection

  • CP AoR

    Child Protection Area of Responsibility

  • CPCM

    Child protection case management

  • CP(i)HA

    Child protection in humanitarian action

  • CPIMS

    Child Protection Information Management System

  • CVA

    Cash and voucher assistance

  • DRR

    Disaster risk reduction

  • ECD

    Early childhood development

  • ERW

    Explosive remnants of war

  • EO

    Explosive ordnance

  • FTR

    Family tracing and reunification

  • GBV

    Gender-based violence

  • GBVIMS

    Gender-based Violence Information Management System

  • IASC

    Inter-agency Standing Committee

  • ICRC

    International Committee of the Red Cross / Crescent

  • IDTR

    Identification, documentation, tracing and reunification

  • IDO

    Infectious disease outbreaks

  • IDP

    Internally displaced persons

  • IED

    Improvised explosive devices

  • ILO

    International Labour Organization

  • IM

    Information Management / Manager

  • INEE

    Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies

  • IOM

    International Organisation for Migration

  • IPV

    Intimate partner violence

  • ISP

    Information-sharing protocol

  • IYCF

    Infant and young child feeding

  • LGBTI

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex

  • MHPSS

    Mental health and psychosocial support

  • MRM

    Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (on grave violations of children's rights in situations of armed conflict)

  • NGO

    Non-governmental organisation

  • OCHA

    UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

  • PCM

    Programme cycle management

  • PDNA

    Post-Disaster Needs Assessment

  • PFA

    Psychological first aid

  • PIM

    Protection information management

  • PSEA

    Protection from sexual exploitation and abuse

  • RFL

    Restoring family links

  • SGBV

    Sexual and gender-based violence

  • SMART

    Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-bound

  • SOP

    Standard operating procedures

  • UASC

    Unaccompanied and separated children

  • UN

    United Nations

  • UNHCR

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

  • UNICEF

    United Nations International Children’s Fund

  • WASH

    Water, sanitation and hygiene

  • WFCL

    Worst forms of child labour

  • WHO

    World Health Organisation